Lisele tse nang le methapo ea mollo hammoho le terata hammoho

Neuroplasticity

Lentsoe la neuroplasticity le senya e le neuro bakeng sa "neuron", lisele tsa methapo bokong ba rona le tsamaiso ea methapo. polasetiki ke bakeng sa "ho fetoha, ho senyeha, ho fetoha." Ho "neuroplastic" ho bolela boko ba bokhoni ba ho fetoha ka lebaka la phihlelo. Boko bo etsa sena ka ho matlafatsa likamano pakeng tsa lisele tse ling tsa methapo ha li fokolisa likamano pakeng tsa ba bang. Ke tsela eo boko bo bolokang lintho tse hopolang, ho ithuta, ho se ithute le ho ikamahanya le maemo a fetohileng. Melao-motheo e '

Ntlha ea pele, 'lisele tse nang le methapo ea mollo e tukang hammoho mohala hammoho' e bolela hore liketsahalo tse peli li ka kopana haholo haeba li etsahala ka nako e le 'ngoe. Ka mohlala, ngoana ea amang setofo se chesang ka lekhetlo la pele o sebelisa lisele tse peli tsa methapo ea pelo e sebetsang lipapiso tsa sethofo-le lisele tsa methapo tse nang le mahlaba. Liketsahalo tsena tse peli tse fetileng tse sa lumellaneng li kopanngoa ka ho feletseng bokong ka makala a methapo ea methapo. Ho bona litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso ea ho kopanela liphate ka lekhetlo la pele ho tla etsa hore ho be le mohopolo o sa lebelloang kelellong ea ngoana 'me o qale ho bopa tempele ea hae ea ho kopanela liphate le ea ho kopanela liphate.

Ea bobeli, 'e sebelise kapa e lahlehe' e nepahetse ka ho fetisisa lifensetereng tse itseng tsa nts'etsopele. Ke kahoo ho leng bonolo haholo ho ithuta tsebo e itseng kapa boitšoaro bo itseng lilemong tse itseng. Ha re bone li-gymnast tsa liolimpiki ho qala lilemong tsa 12 kapa libini tsa 'mino ho tloha lilemong tsa 25. Ha ho fapane le ngoana, ngoana ea bonang litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso o kopanya lintho tse ka thōko le lekala la hae la tlhaho bakeng sa thabo ea thobalano. Bocha ke nako ea ho ithuta ka thobalano. Lisele tse nang le methapo ea methapo e amehang ho kena Inthaneteng le ho tobetsa ho tloha sepakapakeng ho ea ho chesa mollo hammoho le tsa thabo le thobalano. Leoto la hae la leoto le mpa le etsa mosebetsi oa lona: ho ama setofo = bohloko; ho kena libakeng tsa bootsoa = thabo. Ho tlohela mosebetsi ho thusa ho fokolisa mekhatlo.

Neurons

Boko ba rona ke karolo ea tsamaiso e ngata ea methapo. E na le tsamaiso ea methapo ea methapo (CNS) le tsamaiso ea methapo ea methapo (PNS). CNS e na le boko le mokokotlo oa mokokotlo. Ha e le hantle ke setsi sa taolo se amohelang tlhahisoleseding eohle e utloahalang ho tloha ho pholletsa le 'mele hore e ka etsa qeto ea ho etsa likarabo tse nepahetseng-mokhoa, tlosa kapa' kamoo u leng kateng '. Mabapi le likarabo tse tobileng li romella lipontšo ka PNS. Kahoo, setšoantšo se tsosang takatso, monko, ho ama, ho latsoa kapa ho sebelisana le lentsoe ho tla chesa litsela tsa ho kopanela liphate ho tloha bokong ho ea ho liphatsa tsa botona le botšehali ka tsamaiso ea methapo ka karoloana ea motsotsoana.

Boko bo na le lisele tsa methapo ea 86 tse limilione tse likete kapa li-neurons. Sele ea lesela kapa methapo ea methapo e na le 'mele oa sele o nang le nucleus e nang le DNA. Habohlokoa, e boetse e na le liprotheine tse fetola sebōpeho ha li ntse li ikamahanya le boitsebiso bo tsoang linaheng tse ling.

Li-neurons li fapane le lisele tse ling tsa 'mele hobane:

1. Li-neurone li na le likarolo tse khethehileng tsa sele tse bitsoang dendrites 'me axons. Basebeletsi ba tlisa matšoao a motlakase 'meleng le li-axon ho nka boitsebiso hōle le' mele oa sele.
2. Li-neurons lia buisana ka mokhoa oa electrochemical.
3. Li-neurons li na le mehaho e khethehileng (mohlala, synapses) le lik'hemik'hale (mohlala, li-neurotransmitters). Sheba ka tlase.

Li-neurons ke lisele tsa manģosa tsamaisong ea methapo. Mosebetsi oa bona ke ho fetisetsa melaetsa e tsoang karolong e 'ngoe ea' mele ho ea ho e 'ngoe. Li etsa karolo ea 50% ea lisele tsa bokong. E 'ngoe e ka bang 50% ke lisele tse nyenyane. Tsena ke lisele tse se nang neuronal tse bolokang homeostasis, tsa theha myelin, le ho fana ka tšehetso le tšireletso bakeng sa methapo ea methapo ea methapo ea methapo le tsamaiso ea methapo ea methapo. Lisele tse nyenyane li etsa tlhokomelo e kang ho hloekisa lisele tse shoeleng le ho lokisa ba bang.

Li-neurons li theha seo re se nahanang e le 'taba e bohlooho'. Ha axon, e ka ba nako e telele kapa e khutšoanyane, e kenngoa ka mafura a mafura (myelin), sena se lumella hore lipontšo li fetele pele ka potlako. Ho apara seaparo se sefubelu kapa ho khetholla, ke seo hangata ho thoeng ke 'taba e tšoeu'. Basebeletsi ba amohelang tlhahisoleseding ha ba fumanoe ke myelinated. Boko ba bocha bo kenyelletsa libaka le litsela. E boetse e potlakisa ho hokahanya ha motho ka ho fokotsa lefu.

Lipontšo tsa motlakase le tsa lik'hemik'hale

Ma-neurons a rona a jara melaetsa ka mefuta ea matšoao a motlakase a bitsoang mehopolo ea methapo kapa liketso tsa ketso. E le ho theha tšusumetso ea methapo, methapo ea rona e lokela ho thaba ka ho lekana, ka lebaka la mohopolo kapa phihlelo, ho romela leqhubu le chesang bolelele ba seleng ho thabisa kapa ho thibela li-neurotransmitters qetellong ea axon. Metsoalle e kang khanya, litšoantšo, molumo kapa khatello kaofela li thabisa li-neurons tsa rona tse utloahalang. [/ X_text] [/ x_column] [/ x_row]

Boitsebiso bo ka phalla ho tloha ho neurone e 'ngoe ho ea ho e' ngoe ea neuron ho pholletsa le synapse kapa lekhalo. Li-neurons ha li hlile lia ama, e synapse ke lekhalo le lenyenyane le arohanang le li-neurone. Li-neurons li na le kae kapa kae pakeng tsa li-1,000 le 10,000 li-connections kapa 'synapses' le li-neurone tse ling. Khopolo e tla bōptjoa ka ho kopanya li-neuron tse fetisang monko, ponahalo, melumo le ho ama ho thunngoa hammoho.

Ha tšusumetso ea methapo kapa liketso e ka fetela pele 'me e fihla qetellong ea axon ha e e-shoa, e etsa hore ho be le mekhoa e sa tšoaneng ea mehato. Sebakeng sa lifofane ho na le li-vesicles tse nyenyane tse nang le lik'hemik'hale tse ngata tse etsang hore mefuta e fapaneng ea likarabo li etsoe. Lipontšo tse fapaneng li nolofatsa li-vesicles tse nang le li-neurotransmitters tse fapaneng. Tsena li-vesicles li fetela karolong e ka holimo ea setulo mme li lokolla lintho tsa tsona ka synapse. E tloha ho neuron ena ho pota-pota kapa synapse 'me e thabisa kapa e sitisa neuron e latelang.

Haeba ho na le ho fokotseha ho ebang palo ea methapo ea mafu (mohlala, dopamine) kapa palo ea li-receptors, molaetsa o ba thata ho feta. Batho ba nang le Mafu a Parkinson ba na le bokhoni ba ho tsebahatsa dopamine. Likarolo tse phahameng tsa lik'hemik'hale tsa mali kapa li-receptors li fetolela molaetsa o matla haholoanyane kapa tsela ea mohopolo. Ha motho ea sebelisang litšoantšo tse hlephisang boitšoaro a itšetlehile ka boitsebiso bo tsosang maikutlo maikutlong, litsela tseo li fetoha mafolofolo le ho matlafatsoa. Motlakase oa motlakase oa theoha habonolo haholo. Ha motho a tlohela tloaelo, ho hlokahala boiteko bo matla ho qoba tsela eo ho seng thata ho e hanyetsa le ho phalla habonolo.

Neuromodulation ke mele mokhoa oo ho fanoeng ka oona Neurone o sebelisa lik'hemik'hale tse le 'ngoe kapa tse ngata ho laola mefuta e sa tšoaneng ea li-neurone. Sena se fapane le tsa khale tsoelo-pele ea synaptic, eo ho eona presynaptic neuron e le 'ngoe e susumetsang ka ho toba molekane a le mong oa postsynaptic, phetoho e le' ngoe ho tse ling. Li-neuromodulators tse ngotsoeng ke sehlopha se senyenyane sa neurons se fetela libakeng tse kholo tsa tsamaiso ea methapo, e amang li-neurone tse ngata. Mefuta e meholo ea li-neuromodulator tsamaiso ea methapo ea mantlha e kenyeletsa dopamine, Serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, 'me norepinephrine / noradrenaline.

Neuromodulation e ka nkoa e le mokokotlo oa methapo ea pelo e sa sebetsanoeng le neuron ea pele ho nako kapa ea robeha metabolite. Basebetsi ba joalo ba qetella ba qeta nako e ngata ho eona se nang le lero le leholo (CSF), ho susumetsa (kapa "ho theola") mosebetsi oa li-neurone tse ling tse ngata boko. Ka lebaka lena, li-neurotransmitters tse ling li nkoa e le li-neuromodulators, tse kang serotonin le acetylcholine. (sheba wikipedia)

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